Emulator setup in Android Studio

This page explains the setup of an Android Studio emulator you can use to develop apps on the Clover platform. The steps are written for Android Oreo (API level 27), the OS used by Clover Flex (2nd generation) and Clover Mini (2nd generation). If you are building an emulator for a device using an earlier API level, there may be minor Android-specific differences in configuration.

When possible, we recommend using a Clover Developer Kit (or DevKit) to fully test your user experience. With DevKits, you have access to hardware-specific functionalities such as:

  • NFC and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE)
  • Secure payments
  • Printing
  • Scanning

An Android emulator can help you quickly prototype, develop, and test your Clover applications. While using an emulator is cost-effective, you will not have access to hardware-specific functionalities that DevKits provide.

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IMPORTANT

You cannot emulate the Station Duo (previously Station Pro) as it is a combination of two devices - Terminal and Display.

Downloading Clover hardware profiles

Clover maintains a profile of each device that you can import into the emulator.

  1. Download the clover-device-profiles.zip archive.
  2. Extract the files to a location of your choosing.

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NOTE

The hardware profiles for the Clover Mini, Mini 2nd Gen, and Mobile require a specific DPI that may be overridden if you make changes to the profile. To verify the setting is correct:

  1. In Android Studio, select Tools > AVD Manager.
  2. In the Actions column for the device, select View Details from the list.
  3. In the details modal that appears, ensure that the hw.lcd.density value is set to 213.

You can also verify this by opening the [user_home]/.android/avd/[virtual-device-name].avd/config.ini file.

Creating a new emulator profile

By creating an emulator profile, your emulator is set with the required hardware configuration.

  1. Launch Android Studio and open your app's project if it does not load automatically.
  2. Select Tools > AVD Manager. The Android virtual device manager window appears.
  3. Click Create Virtual Device.
  4. On the Virtual Device Configuration window, click Import Hardware Profiles.
  5. Navigate to the Clover hardware profiles you downloaded, select one or more files, and then click OK.
  6. In the search box, type Clover.
  7. Select the device profile you want to use and then click Next.
  8. On the System Image page, select the image for the API Level supported on the Clover device you are emulating (based on the following table), and then click Next.

Clover device

Release name

API level

ABI

Target

Station

Jelly Bean

17

x86

Android 4.2

Mobile/Mini (1st gen)

KitKat

19

x86

Android 4.4

Flex

Lollipop

22

x86

Android 5.1

Station 2018

Nougat

25

x86

Android 7.1.1

Flex (2nd gen)/Mini (2nd gen)

Oreo

27

x86

Android 8.1

Station Solo

Q/10

29

x86

Android 10.0

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NOTE

You may need to click the x86 Images tab to find the Android release version needed for your emulator. If the system image is not already available locally, click Download and install the image.

Download a system image without the Google APIs. Clover devices are not Google Play certified and therefore do not come with Google Play Services.

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NOTE

With Android 6.0 (API level 23), grant at runtime permissions have been introduced, which enables users to grant permissions to apps while the app is running, not when they install the app.

Clover devices follow the grant at install app permission model. This model enables Clover merchants to grant device permissions to apps as part of the installation.

To use the grant at install app permission model on the emulator, set the target SDK level to 22 or lower. If your app requires target SDK level 23, 24, or 25, implement the grant at runtime model to have your app run correctly on the emulator. On Clover devices, this model is overridden and your app follows the grant at install model.

  1. On the Verify Configuration page, verify that the correct Startup orientation is selected:

Clover device

Startup orientation

Station

Landscape

Mobile/Mini (1st gen)

Landscape

Flex

Portrait

Station 2018

Landscape

Mini (2nd gen)

Landscape

Flex (2nd gen)

Portrait

Station Solo

Landscape

  1. Click Show Advanced Settings.
  2. Set the RAM value to the amount for the device you are emulating:

Clover device

RAM (GB)

Station

2

Mobile/Mini (1st gen)

2

Flex

1

Station 2018

3

Mini (2nd gen)

2

Flex (2nd gen)

2

Station Solo

2

  1. Set the Internal Storage value to the amount for the device you are emulating:

Clover Device

Internal storage (GB)

Station

5

Mobile/Mini (1st gen)

6

Flex

5

Station 2018

10

Mini (2nd gen)

7

Flex (2nd gen)

16

Station Solo

16

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NOTE

Android Studio may reset the Internal Storage value to 800MB. Verify that the value is set correctly or you will run out of storage space when installing the Clover apps.

  1. Click Finish. A new virtual device is added.
  2. In the Actions column for the device, click the Launch icon. The emulator is launched.

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NOTE

The hardware profiles for the Clover Mini, Mini 2nd Gen, and Mobile require a specific DPI that may be overridden if you make changes to the profile. To verify the setting is correct:

  1. In Android Studio, select Tools > AVD Manager.
  2. In the Actions column for the device, select View Details from the list.
  3. In the details modal that appears, ensure that the hw.lcd.density value is set to 213.

You can also verify this by opening the {user_home}/.android/avd/{virtual-device-name}.avd/config.ini file.

Updating device settings for production testing

If you are testing your app against the US or EU production environment, you must change the Android device configuration before proceeding. Each of the following steps provides separate commands for the US and EU.

  1. In the terminal window, run one of the following commands to set the clover_cloud_url:
  • US: adb shell settings put secure clover_cloud_url "https://www.clover.com"
  • EU: adb shell settings put secure clover_cloud_url "https://www.eu.clover.com"
  1. In the terminal window, run one of the following commands to set the clover_target:
  • US: adb shell settings put secure clover_target "prod_us"
  • EU: adb shell settings put secure clover_target "prod_eu"

Sideloading the required Clover APK using ADB

With your emulator profile set, install the Clover APK needed to configure the emulator.

  1. Open the Clover Development APKs page for the Clover environment you want to test against:
  2. Download the Clover Engine APK (com.clover.engine-{version}.apk).
  3. In Android Studio, select View > Tool Windows > Terminal (Alt+F12/Option+F12).
  4. To verify that ADB is connected to the emulator, run the following command: adb devices. A response like the following appears:
List of devices attached
emulator-5554    device
  1. To install the Clover Engine APK, run adb install {download_folder}/com.clover.engine-{version}.apk.
    A Success message appears. Leave the terminal window open.

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NOTE

The next time you sideload an app, open a Clover app and then click the sync button at the top-left of the app. This ensures that you have the latest version of your sideloaded app on the emulator.

Installing required Clover merchant apps

In this setup step, all Clover apps for merchants (such as Register, Orders, and Inventory) are installed by running a Python script. Any of your apps installed to the test merchant you select will also be installed.

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NOTE

ADB must be able to run as root. To verify this, complete the following steps.

  1. In the terminal window, run adb root.
    ADB is restarted to allow commands as root.
  2. Run adb shell id.
    A list of system IDs appears.
  3. Verify that the uid value is 0(root).
  1. On the emulator, open Settings.
  2. Click Users & accounts.
  3. On the Users & accounts page, click Add Account.
  4. On the Add an account page, click Clover.
  5. On the LOG IN page, enter your owner account credentials, and click Log In. If you have created multiple test merchants for your developer account, select the merchant you want to test with from the window that appears.
  6. In the terminal window, run the following command to download the app install script to the current directory: curl https://raw.githubusercontent.com/clover/clover-android-sdk/master/scripts/install_apps.py -O.
  7. Run the install script (./install_apps.py) and wait for all of the apps to be installed. You may need to change the access permissions to make the file executable for your user.
  8. In the terminal window, run adb reboot.
    The emulator reboots and the Select a Home app dialog appears.
  9. Select the Clover Launcher option and then click Always.
    The Clover home screen appears.

Installing your test Android app

Once your initial emulator setup is complete, you can install your test Android apps.

  1. On the Developer Dashboard, click Market Listing on the side-nav.
  2. On the Market Listing page, click PREVIEW IN APP MARKET. You are redirected to the Merchant Dashboard for your test merchant account with an App Market preview of your app.
  3. Click Connect.
  4. On the Install app dialog, select a pricing tier or accept the default, and then click Accept.
  5. In the terminal window, run the install script (./install_apps.py).
    Your app is downloaded and installed on the emulator.
$ ./install_apps.py
Getting installed versions...
Getting current app data...
Updating package: your.package.name from version: ?, to version: 1...

Installing new versions of your app

Emulators do not function exactly like Clover devices, so the app update process is not automatic. After you've uploaded a new APK on the developer dashboard, complete the following steps to update the APK installed on the emulator.

  1. In Android Studio, select View > Tool Windows > Terminal (Alt+F12/Option+F12).
  2. If the emulator has not been restarted since the previous version of the APK was installed, run adb reboot.
    The emulator is restarted.
  3. Run the install script (./install_apps.py).
    The new APK is downloaded and installed on the emulator.
$ ./install_apps.py
Getting installed versions...
Getting current app data...
Updating package: your.package.name from version: 1, to version: 2...

Sideloading APKs

You can also sideload APKs to your emulator, but you must first uninstall the previous version manually with adb uninstall your.package.name. When updating to a new version of your app, the new version must be installed using the same method (the install script or sideloading) as the previous version. If you try to use the other method, Android's signature verification will return an error:

Failure [INSTALL_FAILED_UPDATE_INCOMPATIBLE: 
Package your.package.name signatures do not match
the previously installed version; ignoring!]

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